The data center has two layers of infrastructure –
IT infrastructure of a data center consists of the following components.
IT PLATFORM INNOVATION
IT server is a software or hardware system that carries out a dedicated function and provide services to other computers (clients) in the network. This architecture is called a client-server model.
Servers shares data, hardware and software resources among the clients. IT server consists of an operating system, hardware, and software service.
IT server for a data center has many other servers connected via router and switches managing a large number of clients requests for services.
Some of the servers that are categorized on the basis of their functionality are as follows:
- File Servers – It stores and shares files and folders over a network.
- Web Servers – It distributes information over the World Wide Web.
- Database Server – it maintains and shares databases.
- Mail Server – It handles and delivers e-mails over Internet.
- Application Server – It hosts web application for users without installing it on the user’s machine.
- Fax Server – Shares fax machines over a network to provide access to users irrespective of their location.
- Print Server – Shares printers over a network to provide access to users irrespective of their location.
- Chat Server – Provides facilities for chatting to users over a network.
All these are server computers with powerful CPUs and a large amount of memory. Servers are very essential part of the IT Infrastructure in the data center.
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Data center network interconnects all data center resources together. This network must be scalable, it must be able to scale up to thousands of nodes.
It must offer high cross-section bandwidth to cope up with heavy network load. The basic layered design in the data center IT infrastructure network is as follow.
It has three layers:-
Local area network (LAN) of data center and wide area network ( WAN ) outside the data center are connected via a gateway machine situated at the entrance of the data center. A data center has to process millions of request. For directing the request to an appropriate server, multiple routers are deployed in a network layer of the internal network.
Switches are also configured to manage data flow in all network segments of the data center. All the network segments in a data center are connected via backbone. The backbone is of high bandwidth capacity to regulate two-way traffic in a data center.
Data storage is very important in data center design. There are different types of data storage.
Network Attached Storage(NAS)
Network attached storage(NAS) is a storage device that allows storage and retrieval of data from a centralized location to the authorized user. It self contained appliance with its own operating system and storage. NAS is like having a private cloud in the company.
Storage Area Network (SAN)
It is a specialized high-speed network of storage devices and switches connected to a computer system. In traditional servers, there is a direct connection between server and storage device and server used to manage and own storage devices.
SAN provides the flexibility of one or more servers to share a common storage device. Each server in SAN can access the storage as if it is directly attached to the server. It allows moving and sharing of data among various storage devices. It is suitable for business of any size.
Direct Access Storage(DAS)
In DAS architecture, storage device is directly attached to the server. So clients must connect directly to the server that contains storage to access the data. It has limited scalability and can support the limited number of drives.
If the server is down for maintenance or any other reason then clients are not able to access shared data. Direct Access Storage(DAS)
is suitable for small enterprises. Thus it has a low initial cost.
IT PLATFORM INNOVATION
The evolution of IT platform infrastructure towards a virtualized cloud-based system.
IT platform infrastructure includes:
It is also referred to as a server cluster. It is a group of computer servers placed in one location.
For example, the web server farm is either a website having more than one server or an Internet Service Provider (ISP).
It provides services such as centralized access control, file or printer sharing and backup for workstation user. It distributes and streamlines workload among different servers which accelerate the processing. If one of the servers fails, other takes its load.
It uses load balancing software to track demand of processor power, schedule, reschedule request of users on the basis of priority.
Grid computing is an integration of computer resources from various location to form a common virtual platform.Unlike cluster computing, computer in grid computing is geographically dispersed.
All computer work toward achieving a common goal through every node may perform a different application.
Grid computing can slove complex tasks in a shorter time as it efficiently uses existing available hardware.
Service-oriented architecture(SOA) is a loosely coupled architecture designed to provide services over a network.
A service is a self-contained unit of functionality that carries out tasks like validating data, online transactions etc.
Every service in Service-oriented architecture(SOA) architecture can communicate with other services without any human intervention. Web services follow service-oriented architecture.
Every web service consists of three components:
Repository: It stores web services. It also describes how to use web service.
Messaging components: It directs message over a network.
Service: It gives information about services provided by web services
In virtualization, a single machine running single OS can host multiple virtual machines running same or different OS.
The three major areas where virtualization is used are:
1.Network virtualization: It combines available network resources by dividing the bandwidth into channels. It assigns this channel to req device or required device or server
2.Storage virtualization: It combines network storage from multiple storage devices into a single storage device
3.Server virtualization: It divides one physical server in multiple small virtual servers like a web server. It masks server resources from user to hide complex details of server resources. Thus virtualization facilitates the economical use of resources and saves energy consumption.
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In cloud computing, remote server network on the internet store, manage and process data instead of the personal computer or local server.
Cloud resources are shared and reallocated as per the demand and requirement of users.
This approach maximizes computing power and reduces the cost of resources by using less power, rack space and air conditioning.
Main benefits of cloud computing are:
1.Flexibility: Companies can scale up and scale down as per the computing requirements.
2.Pay per use: Users are required to play for only resources and workload they are using.
3.Self-service provisioning: End users themselves launch application and services without intervening service provider.
Cloud computing service can be private, public, or hybrid –
1.Private: They are delivered from business data centers to internal users. They are used for sensitive and mission-critical applications.
2.Public: They are delivered by third party provider over the network. They are used for heavy workloads. Some of the popular public cloud providers are Microsoft Azure, Amazon web services and Google computer engine.
3.Hybrid: They are a combination of public and private cloud services. They are used to harness the scalability and infrastructure of the public cloud to maintain over sensitive and critical data.
In detail cloud computing.
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